Boehringer Ingelheim today announces the ten-year anniversary of the RE-LYŽ trial publication(1-3) recognising the contribution made in the decade since by patients, healthcare professionals (HCPs) and researchers. In the fifty years prior, warfarin had been the standard of care for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF). While effective, warfarin has a number of known interactions, meaning patients require careful monitoring, and the warfarin dose being adjusted accordingly. The pivotal RE-LYŽ trial investigated the efficacy and safety in stroke prevention of dabigatran compared to warfarin in 18,113 atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. It marked the first time that a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), that has since been brought to market, was shown to be at least as effective and safer than warfarin in stroke prevention in a randomised setting.(1-3) This represented the first puzzle piece in the growing knowledge base around NOACs as an alternative therapy option to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for SPAF. "RE-LYŽ was the first crucial sign that a new, safer therapy option for SPAF was on its way," said Stuart J. Connolly, MD, Professor Emeritus, Division of Cardiology at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. "The positive results brought a real sense of excitement to researchers, HCPs and patients alike, and the subsequent approval of dabigatran for SPAF from 2010 onwards provided a safer, effective and more manageable therapy option. AF patients now had greater reassurance around stroke prevention and without the impact that regular monitoring and dose adjustment had on their day-to-day life."